|HRG GROUP, INC. filed this Form 10-Q on 05/05/2017|
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SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2017
For the transition period from to
Commission file number: 1-4219
HRG Group, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x or No ¨.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x or No ¨.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ or No x
There were 200,543,374 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding as of May 2, 2017.
HRG GROUP, INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I: FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
HRG GROUP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
HRG GROUP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In millions, except per share data)
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
HRG GROUP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
HRG GROUP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
HRG GROUP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Dollars in millions, except per share and unit measures or as otherwise specified)
(1) Description of Business
HRG Group, Inc. (“HRG” and collectively with its respective subsidiaries, the “Company”) is a holding company that conducts its operations through its operating subsidiaries. HRG’s shares of common stock trade on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “HRG.”
The Company’s reportable business segments are organized in a manner that reflects how HRG’s management views those business activities. Accordingly, the Company currently operates its business in two reportable segments: (i) Consumer Products and (ii) Insurance.
The Company also owns Salus Capital Partners, LLC, (“Salus”), an asset-based lender, and 99.5% of NZCH Corporation (“NZCH”), a public shell company. From time to time, the Company may manage a portion of its available cash and engage in other activities through its wholly-owned subsidiaries, HGI Funding, LLC (“HGI Funding”) and HGI Energy Holdings, LLC (“HGI Energy”). The Company’s corporate operations, as well as the operations of Salus, HGI Funding, NZCH and HGI Energy are presented in the Corporate and Other segment.
For the results of operations by segment, and other segment data, see Note 15, Segment Data and Note 16, Consolidating Financial Information.
Consumer Products Segment
The Consumer Products segment represents the Company’s 58.4% controlling interest in Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc. (“Spectrum Brands”). Through its operating subsidiaries, Spectrum Brands is a diversified global branded consumer products company with positions in multiple product lines and categories: consumer batteries, small appliances, global pet supplies, home and garden control products, personal care products, hardware and home improvement products and global auto care.
As of March 31, 2017, the Company’s insurance operations were conducted through Front Street Re (Delaware) Ltd., (“Front Street”) and its Bermuda and Cayman-based subsidiaries, Front Street Re Ltd. (“Front Street Bermuda”) and Front Street Re (Cayman) Ltd. (“Front Street Cayman”), respectively. Through Front Street and its Bermuda and Cayman-based subsidiaries, the Company engages in the business of life, annuity and long-term care reinsurance.
The Company also owns 80.4% of Fidelity & Guaranty Life (“FGL”). Through its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Fidelity & Guaranty Life Insurance Company (“FGL Insurance”) and Fidelity & Guaranty Life Insurance Company of New York, FGL is a provider of various types of fixed annuities and life insurance products in the U.S.
On April 17, 2017, FGL terminated its Agreement and Plan of Merger (as amended, the “FGL Merger Agreement” and the merger contemplated thereby, the “Merger”), by and among FGL, Anbang Insurance Group Co., Ltd. and its affiliates (collectively, “Anbang”). Prior to its termination, the FGL Merger Agreement was amended on November 3, 2016 and on February 9, 2017, each time to extend the outside termination date. As part of the February 9, 2017 amendment, the FGL Merger Agreement was also amended to permit FGL to explore and negotiate strategic alternatives with other parties, but not to enter into a definitive agreement with a third party while the FGL Merger Agreement was in effect. As a result of the termination of the FGL Merger Agreement, FGL has no remaining obligations under the FGL Merger Agreement and may enter into an alternative transaction. In connection with the termination of the FGL Merger Agreement, on April 17, 2017, FGL’s Board of Directors announced that it was continuing to evaluate strategic alternatives to maximize shareholder value and had received interest from a number of parties (the “FGL Strategic Evaluation Process”). There can be no assurance that the FGL Strategic Evaluation Process will result in a transaction, or that any transaction, if pursued, will be consummated. The FGL Strategic Evaluation Process may be terminated at any time with or without notice. Neither HRG nor any of its affiliates intends to disclose developments with respect to this process until such time that it determines otherwise in its sole discretion or as required by applicable law.
As a result of the FGL Strategic Evaluation Process and the consideration of other applicable facts and circumstances, as of March 31, 2017, the Company’s ownership interest in FGL continues to be classified as held for sale in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and FGL’s operations were classified as discontinued operations in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows and reported separately for all periods presented. See Note 4, Divestitures.
Corporate and Other
On April 14, 2017, the Company and Omar Asali, President, Chief Executive Officer and a director of the Company, entered into a Separation and Release Agreement pursuant to which Mr. Asali ceased his employment with the Company and resigned from the Board of Directors of the Company and its subsidiaries. On April 14, 2017, Mr. Joseph S. Steinberg, the Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Company, was appointed to the additional position of Chief Executive Officer of the Company.
On March 22, 2017, the Company also appointed Mr. Ehsan Zargar, effective as of January 1, 2017, as Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of the Company.
In addition, as previously announced in November 2016, the Company’s Board of Directors initiated a process to explore and evaluate strategic alternatives, which may include, but are not limited to, a merger, sale or other business combination involving the Company and/or its assets. There can be no assurance that HRG’s review of strategic alternatives will result in a transaction, or that any transaction, if pursued, will be consummated. HRG’s review of strategic alternatives may be terminated at any time with or without notice. Neither HRG nor any of its affiliates intends to disclose developments with respect to this process until such time that it determines otherwise in its sole discretion or as required by applicable law.
Also, on November 28, 2016, the Company and David Maura, Managing Director and Executive Vice President of Investments of the Company, entered into a Separation and Release Agreement pursuant to which Mr. Maura resigned his employment with the Company, but will continue to serve as the Executive Chairman of Spectrum Brands and its subsidiaries and as a member of the Company’s Board of Directors.
(2) Basis of Presentation, Significant Accounting Policies and Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements of the Company included herein have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The financial statements reflect all adjustments that are, in the opinion of management, necessary for a fair statement of such information. All such adjustments are of a normal recurring nature. Although the Company believes that the disclosures are adequate to make the information presented not misleading, certain information and note disclosures, including a description of significant accounting policies normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”), have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. Certain prior amounts have been reclassified or combined to conform to the current year presentation. These reclassifications and combinations had no effect on previously reported net loss attributable to controlling interest or accumulated deficit. These interim financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s annual consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2016, filed with the SEC on November 23, 2016 (the “Form 10-K”). The results of operations for the six months ended March 31, 2017 are not necessarily indicative of the results for any subsequent periods or the entire fiscal year ending September 30, 2017.
The Company’s fiscal year ends on September 30 and the quarters end on the last calendar day of the months of December, March and June. Spectrum Brands’ fiscal year ends September 30 and its interim fiscal quarters end every thirteenth Sunday, except for its first fiscal quarter which may end on the fourteenth Sunday following September 30. The Company does not adjust for the difference in fiscal periods between Spectrum Brands and itself, as such difference would be less than 93 days, pursuant to Regulation S-X Rule 3A-02.
At March 31, 2017, the noncontrolling interest component of total equity primarily represents the 41.6% share of Spectrum Brands and the 19.6% of FGL not owned by HRG.
Insurance Subsidiary Financial Information and Regulatory Matters
FGL Insurance’s statutory carrying value of Raven Reinsurance Company (“Raven Re”), its wholly-owned subsidiary, reflects the effect of permitted practices Raven Re received to treat the available amount of a letter of credit as an admitted asset which increased Raven Re’s statutory capital and surplus by $188.8 and $201.3 at March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016, respectively. Raven Re is also permitted to follow Iowa prescribed statutory accounting practice for its reserves on reinsurance assumed from FGL Insurance which increased Raven Re’s statutory capital and surplus by $4.4 and $4.2 at March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016, respectively. Without such permitted statutory accounting practices, Raven Re’s statutory capital and surplus would be $6.8 and $4.6 as of March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016, respectively, and its risk-based capital would fall below the minimum regulatory requirements. The letter of credit facility is collateralized by debt securities rated by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”) as “NAIC-1.” If the permitted practice was revoked, the letter of credit could be replaced by the collateral assets with Nomura Bank International plc’s consent. FGL Insurance’s statutory carrying value of Raven Re at March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016 was $199.9 and $210.0, respectively.
On November 1, 2013, FGL Insurance re-domesticated from Maryland to Iowa. After re-domestication, FGL Insurance elected to
apply Iowa-prescribed accounting practices that permit Iowa-domiciled insurers to report equity call options used to economically hedge fixed indexed annuity (“FIA”) index credits at amortized cost for statutory accounting purposes and to calculate FIA statutory reserves such that index credit returns will be included in the reserve only after crediting to the annuity contract. This resulted in no impact to statutory capital and surplus at March 31, 2017.
Adoption of Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In January 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment (“ASU 2017-04”), which simplifies the test for goodwill impairment by removing Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. If goodwill impairment is realized, the amount recognized will be the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value; however the loss recognized cannot exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. ASU 2017-04 must be applied on a prospective basis and will become effective for public entities in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption available. The Company elected to early adopt ASU 2017-04 effective March 31, 2017, resulting in no impact to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-07, Compensation - Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost (“ASU 2017-07”), which requires an employer to disaggregate the service cost component from the other components of net periodic pension costs in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. ASU 2017-07 provides guidance requiring the service cost component to be recognized consistent with other compensation costs arising from service rendered by employees during the period, and all other components to be recognized separately outside of the subtotal of income from operations. ASU 2017-07 is applied on a retrospective basis, and will become effective for public entities in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption available. This update will be effective for the Company in the first quarter of fiscal year ending September 30, 2019. The net periodic benefit cost for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2016 was $4.8; of which the service cost component was $3.3 and other components were $1.5. The net periodic benefit cost for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2017 will be $7.9, of which the service cost component is $4.3 and other cost components are $3.6.
The Company has implemented all new accounting pronouncements that are in effect and that may impact its Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and does not believe that there are any other new accounting pronouncements, other than the ones disclosed above and in the Company’s Form 10-K, that have been issued that might have a material impact on its financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
(3) Significant Risks and Uncertainties
Use of Estimates and Assumptions
The preparation of the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates and assumptions used.
Concentration of Securities Included in Funds Withheld Receivables
As of March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016, Front Street’s most significant exposure related to the securities underlying the funds withheld receivables was to the financial sector and the energy, mining and metals industries.
As of March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016, the carrying value of the fixed maturity securities in the financial sector was $243.2, or 14.9%, and $232.8, or 14.1%, respectively, of Front Street’s funds withheld receivables. At March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016, the holdings in this sector included investments in 92 and 81 different issuers, respectively, with the top ten investments accounting for 47.7% and 48.0%, respectively, of the total holdings in this sector.
As of March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016, the carrying value of the fixed maturity securities in the energy, mining and metals industries was $168.5, or 10.3%, and $188.6, or 11.4%, respectively, of Front Street’s funds withheld receivables. At March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016, the holdings in these industries included investments in 66 and 74 different issuers, respectively, with the top ten investments accounting for 42.0% and 43.4%, respectively, of the total holdings in these industries.
There were no holdings in a single issuer included in the funds withheld receivables that exceeded 10% of the Company’s stockholders’ equity as of March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016.
Concentrations of Financial and Capital Markets Risk
Through Front Street, the Company is exposed to financial and capital markets risk, including changes in interest rates and credit spreads which can have an adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. The Company expects to continue to face challenges and uncertainties that could adversely affect its results of operations and financial condition.
The Company’s exposure to such financial and capital markets risk relates primarily to the market price and cash flow variability associated with changes in interest rates. A rise in interest rates, in the absence of other countervailing changes, will increase the net unrealized loss position of Front Street’s fund withheld receivables and, if long-term interest rates rise dramatically within a six to twelve month time period, certain of Front Street’s reinsured products may be exposed to disintermediation risk. Disintermediation risk refers to the risk that policyholders may surrender their contracts in a rising interest rate environment, requiring Front Street to liquidate assets in an unrealized loss position. This risk is mitigated to some extent by surrender charge protection provided by the products reinsured by Front Street.
Insurance Counterparty Risk
Through Front Street, the Company is exposed to insurance counterparty risk, which is the potential for Front Street to incur losses due to a reinsurance counterparty becoming distressed or insolvent. This includes run-on-the-bank risk and collection risk. The run-on-the-bank risk is that a client’s in force block incurs substantial surrenders and/or lapses due to credit impairment, reputation damage or other market changes affecting the counterparty. Substantially higher than expected surrenders and/or lapses could result in inadequate in force business to recover cash paid out for acquisition costs. The collection risk for reinsurance counterparties includes their inability to satisfy a reinsurance agreement because the right of offset is disallowed by the receivership court; the reinsurance contract is rejected by the receiver, resulting in a premature termination of the contract; and/or the security supporting the transaction becomes unavailable to Front Street. To date, Front Street has not experienced a material default in connection with reinsurance arrangements, nor has it experienced any material difficulty in collecting claims recoverable from reinsurance counterparties; however, no assurance can be given as to the future performance of such reinsurance counterparty or as to the recoverability of any such claims.
The allowance for uncollectible receivables as of March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016 was $45.3 and $46.8, respectively. Through Spectrum Brands, the Company has a broad range of customers including many large retail outlet chains, one of which accounts for a significant percentage of its sales volume. This customer represents approximately 15.1% and 13.1% of the Company’s “Receivables, net” in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016, respectively.
The following table summarizes the components of “(Loss) income from discontinued operations, net of tax” in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three and six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016:
As previously discussed in Note 1, Description of Business, the Company’s ownership interest in FGL has been classified as held for sale in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and FGL’s operations were classified as discontinued operations in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The following table summarizes the major categories of assets and liabilities of FGL classified as held for sale in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016:
In accordance with ASC 360, Property, Plant and Equipment, a long-lived asset classified as held for sale is measured at the lower of its carrying value or fair value less cost to sell at the balance sheet date. FGL’s common stock is actively traded and at March 31, 2017, the Company measured the fair value less cost to sell of its investment in FGL as the product of the closing price of FGL’s common stock (NYSE: FGL) at the balance sheet date of $27.80 and the quantity of such shares owned by the Company. At March 31, 2017, the carrying value of the Company’s interest in FGL was $291.1 higher than the fair value less cost to sell and as a result, during the six months ended March 31, 2017, the Company partially reversed the previously recorded $362.8 write-down of assets of business held for sale by $71.7.
The balances included in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and in the table above reflect transactions between the businesses held for sale and businesses held for use that are expected to continue to exist after the completion of any disposition resulting from the FGL Strategic Evaluation Process. Such transactions are not eliminated to reflect the continuing operations and balances held for sale. As a result, adjustments to the carrying value of certain intercompany assets recorded by FGL were reversed upon consolidation in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
Below is a summary of the impact of such intercompany balances in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets:
The following table summarizes the components of “Net (loss) income from discontinued operations” in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three and six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016:
(a) Included in the income tax expense for the six months ended March 31, 2016 was a $90.9 of net income tax expense related to the establishment of a deferred tax liability of $328.6 at March 31, 2016, which was a result of classifying the Company’s ownership interest in FGL as held for sale. The deferred tax liability was partially offset by a $237.7 reduction of valuation allowance on HRG’s net operating and capital loss carryforwards expected to offset the FGL taxable gain at March 31, 2016. The remaining liability is expected to be offset by current year losses recognized in continuing operations except for the $13.2 of estimated alternative minimum taxes.
On July 1, 2016, HGI Energy entered into an agreement to sell its equity interests in Compass to a third party (such agreement, the “Compass Sale Agreement”). During the fourth quarter of the fiscal year 2016, the transactions contemplated by the Compass Sale Agreement were consummated. This sale represented the disposal of all of the Company’s oil and gas properties, which were accounted for using the full-cost method prior to their disposal. The Company has determined that the completion of HGI Energy’s sale of its equity interests in Compass to a third party represented a strategic shift for the Company and, accordingly, has presented the results of operations for Compass as discontinued operations in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The following table summarizes the components of “Net (loss) income from discontinued operations” attributable to Compass in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three and six months ended March 31, 2016.
(5) Derivative Financial Instruments
The fair value of outstanding derivatives recorded in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets were as follows:
For derivative instruments that are used to economically hedge the fair value of Spectrum Brands’ third party and intercompany foreign currency payments, commodity purchases and interest rate payments, the gain (loss) associated with the derivative contract is recognized in earnings in the period of change. The Company recognizes all derivative instruments as assets or liabilities in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value.
The following tables summarize the impact of the effective portion of designated hedges and the gain (loss) recognized in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three and six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016:
During the three and six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company recognized the following gains and losses on its derivatives:
Call options. Derivative financial instruments included within the funds withheld receivables at fair value in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets are in the form of call options receivable by Front Street. Front Street hedges exposure to product related equity market risk by entering into derivative transactions. These options hedge Front Street’s share of the FIA index credit. The change in fair value is recognized within “Net investment gains (losses)” in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Call option receivable from FGL. Under the terms of the modified coinsurance arrangement between Front Street and FGL, FGL is required to pay Front Street a portion of the net cost of equity option purchases and the proceeds from expirations related to the equity options which hedge the index credit feature of the reinsured FIA contracts. Accordingly, the receivable from FGL is reflected in “Funds withheld receivables” as of the balance sheet date with changes in fair value recognized within “Net investment gains (losses)” in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Embedded derivatives in Front Street’s assumed FIA business from FGL. Front Street has assumed FIA contracts that permit the holder to elect an interest rate return or an equity index linked component, where interest credited to the contracts is linked to the performance of various equity indices, primarily the Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services (“S&P”) 500 Index. This feature represents an embedded derivative under U.S. GAAP. The FIA embedded derivative is valued at fair value and included in “Insurance reserves” in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets with changes in fair value included as a component of “Benefits and other changes in policy reserves” in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Foreign exchange contracts - cash flow hedges. Spectrum Brands periodically enters into forward foreign exchange contracts to hedge a portion of the risk from forecasted foreign currency denominated third party and intercompany sales or payments. These obligations generally require Spectrum Brands to exchange foreign currencies for U.S. Dollars, Euros, Pounds Sterling, Australian Dollars, Canadian Dollars (“CAD”) or Japanese Yen. These foreign exchange contracts are cash flow hedges of fluctuating foreign exchange related to sales of product or raw material purchases. Until the sale or purchase is recognized, the fair value of the related hedge is recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”) and as a derivative hedge asset or liability, as applicable. At the time the sale or purchase is recognized, the fair value of the related hedge is reclassified as an adjustment to “Net consumer and other product sales” or “Cost of consumer products and other goods sold”, respectively, in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. At March 31, 2017, Spectrum Brands had a series of foreign exchange derivative contracts outstanding through September 2018. The derivative net gains estimated to be reclassified from AOCI into earnings over the next 12 months is $1.3, net of tax. At March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016, Spectrum Brands had foreign exchange derivative contracts designated as cash flow hedges with a notional value of $252.9 and $224.8, respectively.
Commodity swaps - cash flow hedges. Spectrum Brands is exposed to risk from fluctuating prices for raw materials, specifically zinc and brass used in its manufacturing processes. Spectrum Brands hedges a portion of the risk associated with the purchase of these materials through the use of commodity swaps. The hedge contracts are designated as cash flow hedges with the fair value changes recorded in AOCI and as a hedge asset or liability, as applicable. The unrecognized changes in fair value of the hedge contracts are reclassified from AOCI into earnings when the hedged purchase of raw materials also affects earnings. The swaps effectively fix the floating price on a specified quantity of raw materials through a specified date. At March 31, 2017, Spectrum Brands had a series of zinc and brass swap contracts outstanding through August 2018. The derivative net gains estimated to be reclassified from AOCI into earnings over the next 12 months is $1.5, net of tax. Spectrum Brands had the following commodity swap contracts outstanding as of March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016:
Net Investment Hedge. On September 20, 2016, Spectrum Brands, Inc., a subsidiary of Spectrum Brands, issued €425.0 aggregate principal amount of 4.00% Notes at par value, due October 1, 2026 (“4.00% Notes”). Spectrum Brands’ 4.00% Notes are denominated in Euros and were designated as a net investment hedge of the translation of Spectrum Brands’ net investments in Euro denominated subsidiaries at the time of issuance. As a result, the translation of the Euro denominated debt is recognized in AOCI with any ineffective portion recognized as foreign currency translation gains or losses in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations when the aggregate principal exceeds the net investment in its Euro denominated subsidiaries. Net gains or losses from the net investment hedge are reclassified from AOCI into earnings upon a liquidation event or deconsolidation of Euro denominated subsidiaries. As of March 31, 2017, the hedge was fully effective and no ineffective portion was recognized in earnings.
Commodity Swaps - not designated as hedges for accounting purposes. Spectrum Brands periodically enters into commodity swap contracts to economically hedge the risk from fluctuating prices for raw materials, specifically the pass-through of market prices for silver used in manufacturing purchased watch batteries. Spectrum Brands hedges a portion of the risk associated with these materials through the use of commodity swaps. The commodity swap contracts are designated as economic hedges with the unrealized gain or loss recorded in earnings and as an asset or liability at each period end. The unrecognized changes in the fair value of the commodity swap contracts are adjusted through earnings when the realized gains or losses affect earnings upon settlement of the commodity swap contracts. The commodity swap contracts effectively fix the floating price on a specified quantity of silver through a specified date. At March 31, 2017, Spectrum Brands had a series of commodity swaps outstanding through September 2017. Spectrum Brands had the following commodity swaps outstanding as of March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016:
Foreign exchange contracts - not designated as hedges for accounting purposes. Spectrum Brands periodically enters into forward and swap foreign exchange contracts to economically hedge a portion of the risk from third party and intercompany payments resulting from existing obligations. These obligations generally require Spectrum Brands to exchange foreign currencies for U.S. Dollars, CAD, Euros, Pounds Sterling, Taiwanese Dollars, Hong Kong Dollars or Australian Dollars. These foreign exchange contracts are economic hedges of a related liability or asset recorded in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The gain or loss on the derivative hedge contracts is recorded in earnings as an offset to the change in value of the related liability or asset at each period end. At March 31, 2017, Spectrum Brands had a series of forward exchange contracts outstanding through December 2017. At March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016, Spectrum Brands had $202.4 and $131.4, respectively, of notional value for such foreign exchange derivative contracts outstanding.
Spectrum Brands is exposed to the risk of default by the counterparties with which Spectrum Brands transacts and generally does not require collateral or other security to support financial instruments subject to credit risk. Spectrum Brands monitors counterparty credit risk on an individual basis by periodically assessing each counterparty’s credit rating exposure. The maximum loss due to credit risk equals the fair value of the gross asset derivatives that are concentrated with certain domestic and foreign financial institution counterparties. Spectrum Brands considers these exposures when measuring its credit reserve on its derivative assets, which was insignificant as of March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016.
Spectrum Brands’ standard contracts do not contain credit risk related contingent features whereby Spectrum Brands would be required to post additional cash collateral as a result of a credit event. However, Spectrum Brands is typically required to post collateral in the normal course of business to offset its liability positions. As of March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016, there was no cash collateral outstanding. In addition, as of March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016, Spectrum Brands had no posted standby letters of credit related to such liability positions.
Front Street is exposed to credit risk in the event of non-performance by its counterparties on call options. Front Street seeks to reduce the risk associated with such agreements by purchasing such options from large, well-established financial institutions, but there can be no assurance that Front Street will not suffer losses in the event of counterparty non-performance. No collateral was posted by its counterparties; accordingly, at March 31, 2017, the maximum amount of loss due to credit risk that Front Street would incur if parties to the call options failed completely to perform according to the terms of the contracts was $10.5.
Earnings from FIA reinsurance are primarily generated from the excess of net investment income earned over the sum of interest credited to policyholders and the cost of hedging the risk on FIA policies, known as the net investment spread. With respect to FIAs, the cost of hedging the risk includes the expenses incurred to fund the annual index credits. Proceeds received upon expiration or early termination of call options purchased to fund annual index credits are recorded as part of the fair value changes associated with reinsurance contracts in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations, and are largely offset by an expense for index credits earned on annuity contractholder fund balances.
(6) Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s measurement of fair value is based on assumptions used by market participants in pricing the asset or liability, which may include inherent risk, restrictions on the sale or use of an asset or non-performance risk, which may include the Company’s own credit risk. The Company’s estimate of an exchange price is the price in an orderly transaction between market participants to sell the asset or transfer the liability (“exit price”) in the principal market, or the most advantageous market in the absence of a principal market, for that asset or liability, as opposed to the price that would be paid to acquire the asset or receive a liability (“entry price”). The Company categorizes financial instruments carried at fair value into a three-level fair value hierarchy,
based on the priority of inputs to the respective valuation technique. The three-level hierarchy for fair value measurement is defined as follows:
Level 1 — Values are unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets and liabilities in active markets accessible at the measurement date.
Level 2 — Inputs include quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, quoted prices from those willing to trade in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by market data for the term of the instrument. Such inputs include market interest rates and volatilities, spreads and yield curves.
Level 3 — Certain inputs are unobservable (supported by little or no market activity) and significant to the fair value measurement. Unobservable inputs reflect the Company’s best estimate of what hypothetical market participants would use to determine a transaction price for the asset or liability at the reporting date based on the best information available in the circumstances.
In certain cases, the inputs used to measure fair value may fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy. In such cases, an investment’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lower level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment and considers factors specific to the investment.
When a determination is made to classify an asset or liability within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, the determination is based upon the significance of the unobservable inputs to the overall fair value measurement. Because certain securities trade in less liquid or illiquid markets with limited or no pricing information, the determination of fair value for these securities is inherently more difficult. However, Level 3 fair value investments may include, in addition to the unobservable or Level 3 inputs, observable components, which are components that are actively quoted or can be validated to market-based sources.
The Company’s consolidated assets and liabilities measured at fair value are summarized according to the hierarchy previously described as follows:
Reinsurance Agreements with FGL
Front Street Cayman has entered into certain reinsurance agreements with FGL on a funds withheld basis. The funds withheld receivables portfolio related to the reinsurance agreements with FGL consists of investments in debt and equity securities that are carried at fair value with unrealized gains and losses included in AOCI, net of associated intangibles “shadow adjustments” and deferred income taxes. The funds withheld receivables portfolio also includes cash, derivatives and accrued income.
The liabilities for contractholder funds for deferred annuities consist of contract account balances that accrue to the benefit of the contractholders, excluding surrender charges and other liabilities. The liabilities for FIA consist of the value of the host contract plus the value of the FIA embedded derivative. The FIA embedded derivative is carried at fair value in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets with changes in fair value reported in “Benefits and other changes in policy reserves” in the
accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. Liabilities for immediate annuities without life contingencies are recorded at the present value of future benefits.
Liabilities for investment-type contracts are calculated by multiplying the benefit ratio by the cumulative assessments recorded from contract inception through the balance sheet date plus interest. If experience or assumption changes result in a new benefit ratio, the reserves are adjusted to reflect the changes.
The liabilities for future policy benefits and claim reserves life contingent immediate annuity policies are computed using assumptions for investment yields, mortality and withdrawals based principally on generally accepted actuarial methods and assumptions at the time of contract issue. The investment yield assumptions for life contingent immediate annuities range from 0.8% to 6.0%.
Reinsurance agreements with third parties
Front Street elected to apply the fair value option to account for its funds withheld receivables, non-funds withheld assets and future policyholder benefits reserve related to its assumed reinsurance with third parties. Front Street measures fair value of the funds withheld receivables based on the fair values of the securities in the underlying funds withheld portfolio held by the cedant. The non-funds withheld assets held by Front Street, backing the future policyholder benefits reserve, are measured at fair value. Policy loans included in the funds withheld receivables with third parties are measured at amortized cost, which approximates fair value.
Front Street uses a discounted cash flows approach to measure the fair value of the future policyholder benefits reserve. The cash flows associated with future policy premiums and benefits are generated using best estimate assumptions (plus a risk margin, where applicable) and are consistent with market prices, where available. Risk margins are typically applied to non-observable, non-hedgeable market inputs such as mortality, morbidity, lapse, discount rate for non-performance risk, discount rate for risk margin, surrenders, etc. Mortality relates to the occurrence of death. Mortality assumptions are based upon the experience of the cedant as well as past and emerging industry experience, when available. Morbidity relates to the occurrence of a claim status and is a key assumption for the long term care business. Morbidity assumptions are based upon the experience of the cedant as well as past and emerging industry experience, when available. Mortality and morbidity assumptions may be different by sex, underwriting class and policy type. Assumptions are also made for future mortality and morbidity improvements.
Front Street determines the discount rate based on the market yields on the underlying assets backing the liabilities plus a risk margin to reflect uncertainty and adjusts the discount rate to reflect the credit risk of Front Street. Policies are terminated through surrenders and maturities, where surrenders represent the voluntary terminations of policies by policyholders and maturities are determined by policy contract terms. Surrender assumptions are based upon cedant experience adjusted for expected future conditions. Front Street discounts the liability cash flows by using the market yields on the underlying assets backing the liabilities plus a risk margin to reflect uncertainty and adjusts the discount rate to reflect the credit risk of Front Street.
The significant unobservable inputs used in the fair value measurement of the Front Street future policyholder benefit liability are non-performance risk spread and risk spread to reflect uncertainty. Significant increases (decreases) in non-performance risk spread and risk margin to reflect uncertainty would result in a lower (higher) fair value measurement.
Funds Withheld Receivables
Through Front Street, the Company measures the fair value of its securities included in the funds withheld receivables portfolio based on assumptions used by market participants in pricing the security. The appropriate valuation methodology is selected based on the specific characteristics of the fixed maturity or equity security, and the Company will then consistently apply the valuation methodology to measure the security’s fair value. The Company’s fair value measurement is based on a market approach, which utilizes prices and other relevant information generated by market transactions involving identical or comparable securities. Sources of inputs to the market approach include a third-party pricing service, independent broker quotations or pricing matrices. The Company uses observable and unobservable inputs in its valuation methodologies. Observable inputs include benchmark yields, reported trades, broker-dealer quotes, issuer spreads, two-sided markets, benchmark securities, bids, offers and reference data. In addition, market indicators and industry and economic events are monitored and further market data will be acquired when certain thresholds are met. For certain security types, additional inputs may be used, or some of the inputs described above may not be applicable. For broker-quoted only securities, quotes from market makers or broker-dealers are obtained from sources recognized to be market participants. Management believes the broker quotes are prices at which trades could be executed based on historical trends executed at broker-quoted or slightly higher prices. The Company did not adjust prices received from third parties as of March 31, 2017. However, the Company does analyze the third-party valuation methodologies and its related inputs to perform assessments to determine the appropriate level within the fair value hierarchy.
The fair values of the embedded derivatives in Front Street’s assumed FIA business from FGL are derived using market indices, pricing assumptions and historical data. The significant unobservable inputs used in the fair value measurement of the FIA embedded
derivatives in Front Street’s assumed FIA business are market value of options, interest swap rates, mortality multiplier, surrender rates, and non-performance spread. The mortality multiplier at March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016 was applied to the Annuity 2000 mortality tables. Significant increases or decreases in the market value of an option in isolation would result in a higher or lower, respectively, fair value measurement. Significant increases or decreases in interest swap rates, mortality multiplier, surrender rates, or non-performance spread in isolation would result in a lower or higher, respectively, fair value measurement. Generally, a change in any one unobservable input would not result in a change in any other unobservable input.
Spectrum Brands’ derivative assets and liabilities are valued on a recurring basis using internal models, which are based on market observable inputs including interest rate curves and both forward and spot prices for currencies and commodities, which are generally based on quoted or observed market prices and classified as Level 2. The fair value of certain derivatives is estimated using pricing models based on contracts with similar terms and risks. Modeling techniques assume market correlation and volatility, such as using prices of one delivery point to calculate the price of the contract’s different delivery point. The nominal value of interest rate transactions is discounted using applicable forward interest rate curves. In addition, by applying a credit reserve which is calculated based on credit default swaps or published default probabilities for the actual and potential asset value, the fair value of Spectrum Brands’ derivative assets reflects the risk that the counterparties to these contracts may default on the obligations. Likewise, by assessing the requirements of a reserve for non-performance which is calculated based on the probability of default by Spectrum Brands, it adjusts its derivative liabilities to reflect the price at which a potential market participant would be willing to assume Spectrum Brands’ liabilities.
The Company has not changed its valuation techniques in measuring the fair value of any derivative assets and liabilities during the quarter.
Quantitative information regarding significant unobservable inputs used for recurring Level 3 fair value measurements of financial instruments carried at fair value as of March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016 were as follows:
The following tables summarize changes to the Company’s financial instruments carried at fair value and classified within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy for the three and six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016. The gains and losses below may include changes in fair value due in part to observable inputs that are a component of the valuation methodology.
(a) During the three months ended March 31, 2017, the net transfer out of Level 3 was exclusively to Level 2.
(a) During the six months ended March 31, 2017, the net transfer out of Level 3 was exclusively to Level 2.